2400-series Cars

 

Cars 2401-2402 are "stretching their legs" during test runs in their first months on the system, at Armitage on October 31, 1976. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Art Peterson, Collection of Joe Testagrose)

 

Specifications:

Built by: Boeing-Vertol
Year: 1976-1979
Length: 48'-0"
Width at Floor: 8'-8"
Width at Windows: 9'-4"
Height over Roof: 12'-0"
Trucks: Wegmann
Truck centers: 33'-8"
Truck wheelbase: 78"
Coupler: #1 end / #2 end: Form 5 / tubular
Wheel diameter: 28"

Seats:

.

A-45 B-49 (as-built)

A-43 B-45 (after mid-life rehab) *

Weight (w/o passengers): 54,300 lb.
Motors per car 4 GE1262A1 @ 110hp
Balancing speed: 70 mph
Governed speed: 55 mph +

* Rehabbed by Skokie Shops in 1987-1995
+ The propulsion package, while capable of higher speeds, is limited by the logic of the car controls and the external signal system.

 

History:

By the 1970s, the last of the 4000-series cars were approaching the time for retirement, but the minimum service requirements could only barely be covered by the remaining 2000s, 2200s and 6000s, and even the latter series was beginning to show its age. Planned as another generation in the High Performance Family started by the 2000-series cars delivered in 1964, and continued by the 2200-series cars delivered in 1969-70, experience gained from the design and operation of those 330 cars made the 2400-series among the most modern rapid transit cars of the time. CTA decided to order 100 new cars with an option for an additional 100 (which was eventually exercised) compatible with the 2000s and 2000s.

This early rendering of the planned 2400-series cars, from 1972, shows that the basic form and look the cars would have was present from early stages, including the front-end design characteristic of the work of industrial design consultant Sundburg-Ferar. There would be some changes before production, however, including the marker lights, livery, and change from folding "blinker" doors to a return to sliding doors. For a larger view, click here. (Rendering from CTA Collection)

The 2400-series cars were built by a unit of the Boeing Company, best known as an airplane and aerospace manufacturer, called the Vertol division, whose primary product was helicopters and other rotorcraft. During the 1970s, Boeing-Vertol entered the rail transit rolling stock business to access this market following decreased defense spending after the Vietnam War. Boeing-Vertol had only three contracts for mass transit vehicles -- besides its "L" car order, they built orders of a new federally-sponsored US Standard Light Rail Vehicle design (aka the "SLRV") for Boston and San Francisco -- before exiting the market, due to no additional sales. The "L" cars became reliable performers for the CTA for ensuing decades, thanks in large part to the experience of CTA that influenced the design, whereas the SLRV was designed by Boeing and its contractors. The carbody shells fabricated were by Portuguese manufacturer Sorefame.

The 200 new cars were built at a cost of approximately $61 million. The federal government's Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) funded 80 percent of the cost. The 20 percent "matching fund" was provided by the Illinois Department of Transportation.

The 2400-series cars featured an interior and exterior aesthetic design by Sundberg-Ferar, of Southfield, MI, an industrial design consultant that, in the late 1960s and 70s, specialized in the design of mass transit vehicles. Sundberg-Ferar was also retained by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), and Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) to design their car aesthetics around the same time, resulting in similarities between the cars of these brand-new, then state-of-the-art systems and the CTA's 2400s. The 2400-series cars married certain visual aspects of the 1964-built 2000-series cars with advances developed with the 1969-built 2200-series, combined with other changes that made the equipment very contemporary looking for the time.

"Everything about these new cars is designed for passenger safety and comfort," said James J. McDonough, CTA acting chairman at the time, at the cars' inaugural run in 1976. The 2400-series "L" cars feature a return to the smooth, curved sides and contoured fiberglass front end (with new styling) used on the 2000s, but using the stainless steel body and large picture windows found on the 2200s.

Car 2401, followed by its mate 2402, is staged on the Dan Ryan connector track near 18th and Clark, north of Cermak-Chinatown, during a "preview trip" for the cars on August 29, 1976. One of the purposes for the trip was to stage the cars at various locations to take "beauty shots" of the cars -- like this one against the downtown Chicago skyline, with the recently-completed Sears Tower in the background -- to use for publicity and informational materials. For a larger view, click here. (CTA photo)

For a time before delivery, it was considered giving the 2400s the platinum and black scheme used on the 2000s beginning in 1972, which had allowed the 2000s to visually coordinate more gracefully with the plain stainless steel 2200-series units in mixed consists. A scale model of a 2400 made by Boeing and presented to CTA before production began was initially painted in this livery. (The model was a fixture in Room 734 at the Merchandise Mart for some time. Interestingly, it also wore the car number "8490" while in that paint scheme, though this was not meant to reflect the series number.) However, the cars were delivered between 1976 and 1979 with a variation of the CTA's special Bicentennial scheme, which had been adopted on selected cars beginning in 1974 to celebrate the nation's two hundredth birthday. The scheme was simplified and streamlined for the 2400s -- the red and blue window surrounds on the end caps were retained but the red, white and blue stripe on the side modified and the star-encircled honorary car names for historical figures dropped -- making it more appropriate for a long-term livery, and better adapting it to the cars' architecture. In fact, some publicity materials at the time of the cars' introduction noted that the red, white and blue accents were not for the Bicentennial celebration, but rather as a continuing reminder of the colors of our nation and the City of Chicago.1

Inside, the design reflected the preferences of CTA riders, as determined by a citywide survey in 1971 when public opinion was sought for new transit equipment. The seats, which were similar to those of new CTA buses at the time, had brown and orange padded cushions in contoured fiberglass shells. There were 98 seats in each pair of cars. Also reflecting public preference were the dusky walnut woodgrain pattern of lower side walls and off-white molded plastic upper walls and ceiling. The flooring was chocolate brown rubber. Oversize picture windows of tinted safety glass provided riders with excellent views out of the cars, and added to the overall brightness of the car interiors. Interior brightness and illumination was also enhanced by the use of modern fluorescent fixtures over the windows which backlit advertising panels, providing direct lighting for reading and highlighting the window recesses. Full ceiling fluorescent lighting was provided in doorway areas.

The design of the 2400s interior, as reflected by car 2474 seen in December 1977, were the result of the preferences of CTA riders, as determined by a citywide survey in 1971 when public opinion was sought for new transit equipment. The seats, which were similar to those of new CTA buses at the time, had brown and orange padded cushions in contoured fiberglass shells.. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by David Wilson)

The cars were equipped with air conditioning as their immediate predecessors had been, at a time when the majority of the "L" fleet still did not have air-cooling. Delivery of the 200 cars brought to 530 the total of modern air-conditioned cars on the CTA's system in 1979; however, this was still less than half of the CTA's total fleet of cars.

These cars are notable as featuring a return to wide sliding side doors instead of bi-fold blinker-type doors, which had been featured on all "L" cars built in the preceding 30 years. These sliding doors, providing 50 inches of clearance, were provided for freer passenger flow. They were more suitable for access by handicapped persons -- it is notable that Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, passed while the cars were in design, stated in part that, "no otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States... shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance..." -- this affected mass transit, as most systems received some form of federal funding assistance. Early conceptual artwork for the 2400s showed blinker doors, but this was changed before production. While the sliding doors provided access for persons in wheelchairs, no dedicated space was provided inside for securing a wheelchair clear of the aisle or doorway (this would not occur until the next car series, in 1981, and was retrofit into the 2400s during their mid-life overhaul).

Another new feature was an expanded public address system that made provision for announcements to persons waiting on station platforms, as well as to riders inside -- previous car series were not delivered with exterior speakers. On the outside of each car, there are four speakers - one adjacent to each doorway. Inside each car, there are six ceiling speakers, twice as many as on cars CTA had in 1976.

The cab was dedicated to the motorman's use only from the onset; rearranged equipment and a better seat for the motorman are two of the benefits gained. The electrical equipment is generally the same as that of the 2200-series. The major exception to this is the use of a motor-alternator to supply 230-volt 60-hertz power for all the auxiliary motors on the car. Low-voltage DC is provided by transformers and rectifiers for the control system. Use of 60-hertz AC allows less expensive components to be employed in place costly, high-maintenance DC equipment.

Substantially reduced noise levels lave been achieved through the use of 2-inch-thick fiberglass insulation throughout the walls and ceilings of each car. Still another new feature is the isolation of the body from the underframe by the use of rubber strips, which muffle noise as well as minimize vibration. Vibration is further reduced through the extensive use of rubber in the construction of the car trucks which support axles, wheels and motors.

An entirely new two-way radio communications system on board the cars insured instantaneous contact with the CTA's Control Center.

The electrical equipment was updated and improved over that on the preceding 2200-series. A major change was the use of a motor-alternator to supply 230-volt 60-hertz power for all the auxiliary systems on the car. Low-voltage DC (battery) is provided by transformers and rectifiers for the control system. Use of 60-hertz AC allowed less expensive components to be employed in place of costly, high-maintenance DC equipment. These changes represented another step in the evolutionary path, whose development continued on the subsequent 2600- and 3200-series cars, that eventually led to the modern 5000-series cars being delivered today, whose entire propulsion system is AC-powered, even though the third rail is still 600v DC.

Car 2407 was delivered from Boeing in late 1976. 4000-series cars, in work service, are being used to "horse" the car off the flatcar it was delivered on. The car was mated to 2408 after delivery, then entered acceptance testing before entering revenue service. For a larger view, click here. (CTA photo)

Cars 2491-2500 were planned to be delivered with advanced, solid-state propulsion control with regenerative as well as dynamic braking, though only 2491-2492 were actually delivered with such a package. The solid state (chopper) control was expected to provide smoother acceleration and braking, as well as power savings as much as 30% by utilizing regenerative braking. Following extensive testing with the 2491-2492, the decision was made to change the control on all 10 cars to the conventional cam package. Prototype testing had revealed unanticipated electromagnetic interference, which could have affected the signal track circuits. Cars 2491-2492 were returned to the builder for this conversion. The other eight cars had the conversion performed before they were ever delivered to CTA. As a result, these cars were the last delivered to CTA, in 1979, a year after cars 2599-2600 had been delivered.

Prototype cars 2401-2404 were placed in service on August 31, 1976, and ran in service on most lines for a 600 hour test -- about 2 months -- before delivery began on the 196 production cars. The ceremonial inaugural run of these first cars took place on October 6, 1976. Among the 200 guests were Mayor Richard J. Daley and officials of the federal, state and local governments and representatives of various transportation and planning agencies, including the Chicago area's Regional Transportation Authority. Also present for the train's debut was a delegation of Boeing Vertol executives, including Howard N. Stuverude, president; Arthur E. Hitsman, director of Surface Transportation Systems, and Fred D. Frajola, director of Surface Transportation Systems Engineering. Cars 2405-2406 were delivered in late 1976, beginning delivery of the remaining car order. Most of the cars were delivered by the end of November 1978; cars 2491-2500 came in November 1979.

 

Assignment History

Car 2403, leading a two-car northbound train at Francisco on August 14, 1978, is running on the Ravenswood All-Stop service. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Doug Grotjahn, Collection of Joe Testagrose)

After an initial assignment of prototype cars 2401-2404 around the system for testing, the first production cars were assigned to the Ravenswood, West-Northwest Route and North-South Route services (today, the Brown, Blue and the north Red and south Green lines).

In 1982, with the delivery of the 2600-series cars beginning and assignment to the West-Northwest for the new O'Hare Extension, the cars were moved from that line to the West-South Route (today's west Green and south Red lines). By 1985, all of the 2400s were assigned to the West-South (Lake-Dan Ryan) service, where they remained until 1993, when they were shifted to the newly-formed Red Line in advance of the Green Line's closure in 1994 for rehabilitation.

A major reassignment of 2400s occurred prior to the reopening of the Green Line in May 1996, which was operated with the bulk of these cars in two-man trains. Prior to entering Green Line service, the 2400s went through a major servicing including interior and exterior cleaning. Changing out of fiberglass seat inserts with fabric ones, installation of windscreens above the modesty panels and equipping with number 1 end safety springs were planned.

By the early 2000's the cars were spread between the Green, Red and Purple lines, where they stayed for most of the remainder of their lives. At the end of their lives some cars were assigned to the Orange Line, a service where they had never been assigned until late 2012.

 

Mid-Life Overhaul and Other Changes

Beginning in the mid-1980s, as the cars reached a decade of service, the 2400s underwent a mid-life overhaul to rehabilitate the cars and extend their lives. The overhaul was done in-house by CTA forces. Between 1987 and 1995, the cars were cycled through Skokie Shops, where the work was performed. Work included rehab of the auxiliary (heat, light & A/C) controls as well as of the propulsion systems, all due to typical "wear and tear" from their use and mileage accrued.

By October 1995, Skokie forces were working on the last car to go through the 2400 overhaul program. Car 2458 was being worked on at Skokie while the Delaware Car Company repaired damage to 2457 -- car 2457 had been shipped to Delaware, a company that specializes in retrofits and one-of-a-kind transit and railroad car repairs, to repair fire damage to the #1 end truck and carbody bolster suffered on February 13, 1993, just days before the Howard-Dan Ryan routing took effect. Modifications to car 2458 (to bring it up to current 2400 standards) were just about complete at the end of 1995, and the final touch-up work on this car was done when 2457 was returned from repair at Delaware Car Company in February 1996 (2457 was later returned to Delaware for further corrective work). Car 2458 also received #1 end safety springs. Cars 2457-2458 were shipped to the Green Line from Skokie Shops on July 30, 1996. The cars were released for service after correction of miscellaneous items on August 15, 1996.

Training car 2482 (the last 2400 to wear the original wide red-white-and-blue side stripes) was brought in to Skokie from the Hawthorne Maintenance Training Center on November 11, 1995 for updating to reflect the updated, post-overhaul 2400 configuration and equipment. The car was re-striped in the simplified 2400 livery with narrow belt rail striping and red-white-and blue end panels. This car also became the first 2400 to receive #1 end safety springs, which were mounted off a long steel bar under the fiberglass end cap (this configuration avoids damaging the end cap). The car was returned to Hawthorne (via highway truck) on January 18, 1996.

Toward the end of the mid-life program, Skokie Shops cycled the 2400s through the shop at a rate of about 40 cars per month to renew side door hangers, bearings, tubes and rollers. This program was due for completion at the end of February 1996.

In mid-1995, #2 end safety springs were being added to Red Line 2400- and 2600-series cars on a campaign job performed by Skokie Shops carpenters at Howard Shop. This work involved attaching a stud to the carbody to anchor each spring. The #2 end safety springs are permanently attached, since this is at the permanently-coupled "married" end of each car. At the time, only the 3200-series cars (as delivered) and recent rehabs that had come out of Skokie Shops had #2 end safety springs. After the 2400s and Red Line 2600s, they were retrofit onto the 2600s assigned to other lines, then onto the 2200-series cars. Around the same time, another campaign saw the first 2400s that went through the mid-life rehab program cycled through Midway Shop to receive new reversers similar to those on 3200-series cars. Midway Shop performed this work because of their familiarity with the 3200-type reverser.

In 1996, car 2405 received a pilot installation of flashing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inside the passenger compartment of the car, next to the side destination signs, which were intended to call attention to the destination signs when the new "Express" reading was selected (used by Operators when they are directed to skip scheduled station stops). It was intended to prevent passengers past their stations if they are hearing-impaired or do not hear the manual announcement in time to exit the train and take the follower to their intended station. These Express LEDs were later retrofit fleetwide. This car also was the first, along with 3457-2458, to receive transparent windscreens above the modesty panels at the side doors, another change eventually implemented fleetwide.

Car 2402, leading a southbound Lake-Dan Ryan All-Stop train at Randolph/Wabash on April 23, 1992, sports a greatly simplified version of the early 2400 livery that only lasted about a decade starting in the late 1980s. Like the 2600-series cars, narrower red, white and blue stripping ran along the beltrail, under the windows, but unlike the 2600s they did not wrap around the front end due to the difference in the end cap design. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Art Peterson, courtesy of Krambles-Peterson Archive)

In 1996, CTA began work to retrofit the 2400-series cars with #1 end safety springs. Skokie Shop manufactured many of the parts required to equip all 2400s with the #1 end springs; some parts were being purchased from outside vendors. Car 2458 received #1 end safety springs by early 1996, one of the first, if not the first 2400 so equipped. By late 1996, Red Line-assigned 2400s were being cycled through Harlem Shop for installation of #1 end safety spring hangers. Skokie Shops personnel worked at Harlem Shop, completing this work on Green Line cars, before turning their attention to the Red Line trains. Windscreens and padded seat inserts were also gradually being installed in the Green Line 2400s by this time.

During this period, the 2400-series cars' paint scheme also began to be simplified. By 1987, some cars appeared with greatly simplified, narrower red, white and blue stripping, similar to that on the new 2600-series cars. The narrower stripes ran along the beltrail, under the windows, but unlike the 2600s they did not wrap around the front end due to the difference in the end cap design; they also no longer swept up and over the roof near the front end of the car, as the original 2400 livery provided. In this scheme, the sides retained the charcoal band through the windows -- this, combined with the narrower stripes, provided a consistent look when the cars were in mixed consists with 2600s -- and the red, white and blue coloring of the front end cap was unchanged.

By 1994, the scheme was simplified even further with the removal of the charcoal window band, leaving the sides bare stainless steel with just the thinner red, white and blue striping. Car 2457 was the last 2400 to have charcoal window surrounds, losing them around February 22, 1996, after its return to Skokie Shop from repair work at the Delaware Car Company. The side striping and red and blue end caps remained unchanged in this scheme.

In 1996, CTA also began to experiment with another look for the 2400s: plain gray end caps. Cars 2501-2502 were the first 2400s to model this look in early 1996; these cars kept their thinner red-white-blue striping on the sides (but were otherwise bare stainless steel on the sides). Cars 2457-2458 also got plain gray ends in early 1996, after 2457 returned from repair work at the Delaware Car Company. The implementation of plain gray ends did not spread beyond these few cars to more 2400s for another eight years.

 

Work Motors

With the aging and resulting retirement of the 6000-series work motors, CTA converted the first 22 2400-series cars (2401-2422) to work motor-capable passenger motors in 1995. To make them stand out from their unconverted brethren, they were given red-white-red side striping and red-white chevrons below the front end windows. All colored striping was reflective. The #1 end caps were painted the same shade of gray as on the 3200s.

In 1995, the first 22 2400-series cars were converted to work motors; later, another two were converted. To make them stand out from their unconverted brethren, they were given reflective red-white-red side striping and red-white chevrons below the front end windows. Work motor 2403 is in 61st Yard on January 13, 2007. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Graham Garfield)

There are other not-so-visible changes on the cars. The control group wiring on the cars has been beefed up by using a larger diameter wire. Resistors have been relocated out of the control group, allowing their size to be increased; they are now located next to the grid resistors under the car. A plug for passing the 600 volts DC to the flat cars is located on the side of the coupler, and a 600v trainline cutout box has been installed on these cars. The longer (56-inch) trolley beams are used on both sides of both trucks (allowing sleet scrapers can be installed adjacent to each of the four trolley shoes), and the cars can accept the portable de-icer installations.

The first converted cars to be released were 2409-2410, completed at Skokie on March 7, 1995. On March 8, the 2417-2418 were completed, followed by the 2407-2408 on March 15. As of mid-July, 2401-2404 were converted as well, making 10 cars had been completed. All 22 cars were converted by the end of summer 1995.

Initially, the cars have been used in passenger service on the Red Line, as no north or south side flat cars had yet been converted to the 68-pin electric coupler. This device came into use in 1964 with the 2000-series cars; a 54-pin arrangement was used on the 6000s and 5-50s. Blue Line-assigned flats S-604, S-607 and S-617 had already received the 68-pin coupler in order to train with that line's 2891-2900 work motor-compatible cars. Crane S-3, also assigned to the Blue Line, had the 68-pin coupler as well. Conversion of other S-601-type flat cars and other work cars to the 68-pin coupler occurred gradually up to such time as all remaining 5-50-series cars could be retired.

Plans called for the Skokie supply train, which uses flat cars S-601 and S-602, to be the first train converted to work with the 2400-series motors. At that time, it was planned to assign 2401-2404 to the train.

All 22 of the work motor-capable 2400s went into passenger service on the Green Line, when it reopened in May 1996 after a 2-year renovation, sometimes operated in solid all-work motor six-car trains. Their assignment to the Green Line necessitated reverting the Skokie assigned flat cars S-601 and S-602 to 54-pin electric couplers to operate with 5-50 class work motors.

By early 2000, the work motor-capable 2400s were split between the Green and Red lines, with 2401-2410 and 2423-2424 assigned to Red Line, putting some work motors in various parts of the system to allow work trains to be more easily dispatched from different yards. In late October 2000, the Red Line 2400s were reassigned to the Purple Line, though on a practical basis they didn't go anywhere, since under both assignments they were housed and dispatched from Howard Yard.

Later, cars 2423-2424 were also modified to serve as work motors.

 

OPTO, Life-Extension Overhaul and Other Changes

In 1997, the remaining "L"lines were converted to one-person train operation (OPTO); the Yellow and Orange lines had been one-person since their opening in 1964 and 1993, respectively. Thus, the half-width cabs that were on the 2400-series (and the 2200- and 2600-series) became ill-suited to this new type of operation (the 3200s came with full-width motorcabs as-built). The 2600-series cars began to receive them quickly, but the 2400s were converted more slowly. The first test installation of a full-width cab in the 2400s was performed on units 2531-2532 and 2579-2580; additional cars were retrofit as well afterward. The initial configuration for one-person operation used a belt to cordon off the operator's area (along with a white line on the floor, like on buses) and define the “full width cab” area. Door stops were installed on the cab doors, as when the cab was in use the cab door was opened and needed to be kept opened across the car's end door, resulting in the need for a door holder (stop) to keep the cab door from moving when the train accelerated and decelerated. A drop-sash window was installed on the non-motorcab side of the car and a small door control box (with just a single toggle switch, since it's use would only be from the front of the train and thus no need to differentiate whether to open doors to the left or right of the position) with no microphone was installed. Later, a wall would be retrofit into the non-cab side of the car, creating a fully-enclosed true full-width cab.

Car 2577 stops at Library/State-Van Buren during the morning rush hour on January 7, 2002. The newly-applied American flag, along with the red, white, and blue belt rail and car ends, give this 2400 an especially patriotic feel. The cars would soon lose both the belt rail and end cap colors. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Graham Garfield)

A number of cars were also assigned to the Red Line in the late 1990's; by late October 2000 the cars were entirely assigned to the Green and Purple lines.

Beginning in Fall 2003, the 2400-series railcars began losing their red, white, and blue belt rail striping, as well as the red and blue panels on their sculpted end caps. Experimentation with gray end caps had been performed on a few cars in 1996, but had not been implemented further at that time. The last cars on the system to sport any traces of color, save for the occasional ad-wrapped car, this project brought the 2400s' aesthetic into sync with the rest of the passenger fleet, including the aforementioned rehabbed 2600s and the as-built stainless exteriors of the 2200s and 3200s.

Besides making the entire fleet visually compatible, lending itself to appear more coherent and integrated, the elimination of these features also allowed some mild reductions in maintenance costs. Although the end caps rarely needed touching up -- the color there is not paint, but rather a type of gel coating that adheres to the molded plastic -- the belt rails were often decimated when graffiti remover was used on them, making a reapplication necessary. Many that weren't damaged by the acidic cleaner were in poor shape from sun bleaching and "alligatoring" due to their age (the 2400 belt rail style at the time was introduced circa 1987). Removing this visual touch eliminated the need to reapply the decals. The only 2400s whose end caps would not be completely gray were the 24 work motor-equipped units, cars 2401-2424, which kept their reflective candy-stripped panels. However, they did have their red and white belt rails removed.

The CTA's 2002-2006 and 2003-2007 capital improvement plans included a $16,000,000 program to test new technology on up to eight modified 2400-series rapid transit cars. In order for CTA to develop specifications for a new family of rail cars, it was proposed that up to eight 2400-series cars be modified to accept new state-of-the-art subsystems, including AC-propulsion systems. By using the modified 2400-series cars as a test bed for new technology, CTA wanted to assess the integrated performance of these subsystems and their subsequent use in future rail car purchases. A similar test of technologies was done with a few 6000-series cars in the 1950s to test new developments for what was then the next generation of cars, the High-Performance 2000-series cars. However, this program was canceled and the designated money spent elsewhere. As a result, when the 5000-series cars were designed with AC propulsion systems, they did not have the benefit of the technology having been tested and fine-tuned on the "L" prior to design and contracting for the whole car series.

Beginning in spring 2004, the CTA began to overhaul the 2400-series rail cars as part of a life-extending rehabilitation. The need to overhaul these cars and keep them in active service was brought on, in part, by not being able to take delivery of new cars until 2006 at the earliest (the 5000-series cars would not end up beginning to be delivered until 2009). All 2400-series rail cars received overhauled cam control groups, which are the heart of the propulsion system and provide for smoother acceleration and braking. The 2400-series rail cars had their master controllers rebuilt, a heavy inspection of trucks, upgrade of door units and upgrade of the friction brake hydraulic pump control units.

The "L" gained another "mis-mated" unit in May 2006, when cars 2469 and 2504 were joined in what became the second non-consecutively numbered pair in the 2400-series. Car 2503 was decoupled from its mate and removed from service due to a leaky roof. Its mate, 2504, was paired with car 2469, which had been moved to Linden Shops on February 24, 2006 and served as a training car for maintenance staff. Car 2469's mate was severely damaged in a fire at 37th Middle Track on the Green Line exactly one year earlier, on February 24, 2005, and was deem unlikely to return to service. Car 2503 took 2469's place at Linden. Car 2469 was shipped from Linden Shop to Skokie Shops on May 5, 2006 to be re-mated. The new married pair 2469-2504 officially joined the fleet roster, assigned to the Green Line, effective May 24, 2006.

In 2012, with the continuing delivery of the new 5000-series cars and their assignment to the Green Line, the 2400-series cars again began to be assigned to Red Line service. The reassignment kept to CTA's preferred method of car assignment to minimize the number of different series assigned to a terminal (to allow for more efficient and economical maintenance and parts stocking), since a number of 2400's were already assigned out of Howard for Purple Line service. The moves also served the dual purpose of freeing up some Red Line-assigned 2600-series cars to go to the Blue Line (to replace 2200-series cars being retired) as well as to increase the total number of cars assigned to the Red Line to provide a larger spare ratio.

2400-series cars began to be assigned to the Orange Line at the end of October 2012. Rather than replacing 3200s assigned to the line, the 2400s supplemented the fleet and increased the line's car count. The intent was to use them on additional Brown Line runs scheduled to originate from Midway Yard beginning December 16, 2012, and as such the 2400s were chosen because it would limit the use of the 36-year old cars to rush periods. However, the cars occasionally found their way onto Midway-Loop Orange Line trips as well. The 2400s are the first car type to be permanently assigned to the line other than the 3200-series the line opened with in 1993.

 

Retirement

On the last trip of the 2400-series railcars in scheduled revenue service, Operator James Sheehan leans out the end door of his head car 2508 and waves while stopped at LaSalle/Van Buren on October 31, 2014. For a larger view, click here. (Photo by Graham Garfield)

While a few 2400-series cars were retired just a couple years into their service lives due to the fire at 61st Yard in 1979, 194 of the 200 cars built remained in service into the 21st century. With the delivery of production units of the new 5000-series cars beginning in 2011, and accelerating in 2012, the CTA began retiring the 2200-series cars, the oldest in service at the time. Reaching 37 years of service before the series' retirement began, 2400-series cars began to be retired in earnest in August 2013 following the retirement of the last 2200-series cars.

Retirement of the 2400s went quickly, as manufacture of the 5000s was well underway by that time and had become a smoother process, providing deliveries of new cars at a quick pace. Only 15 months after the last 2200s were retired, the last 2400-series cars were removed from scheduled passenger service. While they were mainstays of services like the West-South Route, West-Northwest Route and Ravenswood in early years, and the Red, Purple and Green lines in later years, interestingly enough the last 2400s were retired from the Orange Line, a route they never ran on before until 2012.

The last trip of the 2400-series in scheduled revenue service was Friday morning, October 31, 2014 (coincidentally, on the anniversary of the opening of the Orange Line, where they last ran). The last trip was Run 707, which arrived back at Midway at 1021 hours with a consist of cars 2508-2507-2581-2582-2449-2450-2511-2512. Following its arrival at Midway, the train was laid up at Midway Yard, with the 2400s thereafter out of daily service.

 

Commemoration, Disposition and Preservation

To commemorate the millions of rides provided for more than four decades by the 2400-series railcars, on January 21, 2015, the CTA held ceremonial last rides on the cars for the public and media. For the event, a solid 4-car train of 2400-series cars made final trips along the Loop, Brown Line, North Side Red Line and South Side Green Line (to/from the Ashland Branch) -- all lines where the cars operated for many years during their service lives. All eight railcars --2455-2456, 2489-2490, 2537-2538 and 2543-2544 -- were restored to their original exterior livery and featured interior maps and advertising cards from their early years of service. "cta Spirit of Chicago" destination signs were utilized by placing decals of the roller curtain graphics on the sign glass.

Car 2490 leads the train of restored 2400-series cars as it enters Washington/Wells station, greeted by photographers, to kick off the 2400-series Farewell Trip event on January 21, 2015. For a larger view, click here. (CTA photo)

The farewell operation began with a ceremonial late-morning trip on the Loop, picking up passengers at about 10:20am at Washington/Wells, making two nonstop trips around the Outer Loop, then dropped off passengers back at Washington/Wells around 10:50am. From there, the train ran to Kimball, then made one round trip on the Brown Line between Kimball and the Loop, making all stops. From there, the train ran lite to Howard, made one trip from Howard to Ashland/63rd via the elevated lines and Loop, then back Howard via the State Street Subway, mimicking the old Englewood-Howard service routing. At the end of the trip, the cars were laid up at Skokie Yard.

These eight cars were then retained and became part of CTA's Heritage Fleet, a program established in 2016 to ensure that vintage CTA buses and railcars are preserved and maintained so they can be remembered and enjoyed through charters and events held for the public. These eight 2400s, along with 1923-vintage 4000-series cars 4271-4272, were the inaugural cars when the program was created.

Most of the 2400-series cars were scrapped. The cars were sold to and scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap were processed at their Chicago Heights Processing facility, while others were scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC in Burnham, IL.

While most cars were scrapped, the 2400s did not all disappear from the "L", however. Besides the eight Heritage Fleet cars, the 24 cars that were modified for work motor service, cars 2401-2424, are being retained for the time being. They are planned to be used only in work service and not in passenger service, although they are kept in a condition such that they could be used for passenger service if necessary (the 5-50 series cars were similarly kept in their final years), although this has not occurred to date.

In addition, a few cars were bought by third parties, some for preservation and some for adaptive reuse. The Illinois Railway Museum bought a pair of cars, 2433-2434; they were delivered to IRM in July 2014. IRM installed trolley poles on the cars so they could operate at the museum (where there is no third rail).

Another car was bought by a developer and used as the focal point of a residential development's amenities deck. The heavily-modified car body of car 2541 -- still bearing its CTA insignias, number and interior details -- was trucked down Milwaukee Avenue on April 7, 2016, and placed, with the help of cranes, atop the deck in the newly-built, L-shaped complex, at 2211 N. Milwaukee Ave., a block south of the Blue Line's California station. Developer Property Markets Group worked with Downers Grove-based ARCO/Murray National Construction Co. and Chicago Salvage Works to rebuild the car body for its new purpose. The "L" car is at second-story level -- its front is visible from street level on Talman Avenue, to the building's south. Its motorman's compartment remains intact, whose dash console is said to be perfect for someone using a laptop. End doors remain, although its passenger doors and most of the windows outside of the motorman's compartment were removed, along with the seating and standee rails. Bar furniture and benches were installed. The interior walls, except at the ends, were replaced with stainless steel. The car sits in the middle of a shallow pool, gazebo-like, also sharing the deck with a dog track and barbecue pits.

 


Disposition of the 2400-series Cars

Over the years a few 2400s have been retired, typically due to damage from an accident or other mishap. The remainder began to be retired in 2013. The first unit sent to scrap as part of the end-of-life retirement was cars 2491-2492.

Cars scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap were processed at their Chicago Heights Processing facility, while others were scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC in Burnham, IL.

(AFR)
Car Date in Service Date to LTH Date Left CTA Notes
2401-2402 8/31/1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2403-2404 8/31/1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2405-2406 late 1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2407-2408 late 1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2409-2410 late 1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2411-2412 late 1976 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2413-2414 late 1976/ early 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2415-2416 late 1976/early 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2417-2418 late 1976/early 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2419-2420 spring 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2421-2422 spring 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2423-2424 spring 1977 -- -- Unit removed from revenue service by 6/1/2014, assigned to nonrevenue work motor service
2425-2426 5/1977 by 3/1/2014 2425: 4/30/2014,
2426: 4/30/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2427-2428 5/1977 by 5/1/2014 2427: 7/17/2014,
2428: 7/14/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2429-2430 5/1977 by 11/1/2014 2429: 3/27/2015,
2430: 3/26/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2431-2432 6/1977 by 3/1/2014 2431: 4/23/2014,
2432: 4/22/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2433-2434 6/1977 by 7/1/2014 2433: 7/29/2014,
2434: 7/30/2014
Bought by the Illinois Railway Museum for preservation
2435-2436 6/1977 by 11/1/2014 2435: 1/22/2015,
2436: 1/21/2015
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2437-2438 6/1977 by 5/1/2014 2437: 6/18/2014,
2438: 6/17/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2439-2440 6/1977 by 3/1/2014 2439: 4/16/2014,
2440: 4/17/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2441-2442 7/1977 by 11/1/2014 2441: 1/15/2015,
2442: 1/14/2015
Scrapped by Duke Scrap 
2443-2444 7/1977 by 5/1/2014 2443: 5/15/2014,
2444: 5/16/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2445-2446 7/1977 by 4/1/2014 2445: 5/20/2014,
2446: 5/21/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap (last cars sent to Belson)
2447-2448 7/1977 removed from
service 8/3/1979
2447: 7/23/1986,
2448: 7/23/1986
Severely damaged in 61st Yard "White House" fire on 8/3/1979; unit removed from service 8/3/1979; authorized by CTA for retirement 12/21/1982, held in storage as of 9/6/1983; scrapped by Pielet Brothers, McCook, IL
2449-2450 7/1977 by 11/1/2014 2449: 4/2/2015,
2450: 4/1/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
Car Date in Service Date to LTH Date Left CTA Notes
2451-2452 7/1977 by 9/1/2014 2451: 10/14/2014,
2452: 10/15/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2453-2454 7/1977 by 9/1/2014 2453: 11/3/2014,
2454: 10/31/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap 
2455-2456 8/1977 by 11/1/2014 -- Original exterior livery restored, used for ceremonial farewell trip on 1/21/2015; retained by CTA as part of Heritage Fleet
2457-2458 8/1977 by 4/1/2014 2457: 5/12/2014,
2458: 5/9/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2459-2460 8/1977 by 11/1/2014 2459: 1/16/2015,
2460: 1/20/2015
Scrapped by Duke Scrap 
2461-2462 9/1977 by 5/1/2014 2461: 6/5/2014,
2462: 6/6/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap 
2463-2464 9/1977 by 1/1/2014 2463: 4/14/2014,
2464: 4/15/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2465-2466 9/1977 8/1/2014 2465: 10/9/2014,
2466: 9/2/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap 
2467-2468 9/1977 by 11/1/2014 2467: 3/20/2015,
2468: 3/23/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2469-2470 9/1977 2469: 5/1/2014,
2470: 4/28/2005
2469: 7/9/2014,
2470: 10/12/2011
Unit damaged by fire at 37th Middle Track on Green Line on 2/24/2005; car 2469 held in storage, repaired, re-paired with car 2504 on 5/24/2006 and returned to service, scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap; car 2470 retired due to severe damage, authorized for retirement, scrapped by Acme Refining
2471-2472 10/1977 by 6/5/2013 2471: 11/18/2013,
2472: 11/15/2013
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2473-2474 10/1977 by 11/1/2014 2473: 3/17/2015,
2474: 3/16/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2475-2476 10/1977 by 5/1/2014 2475: 6/23/2014,
2476: 6/20/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2477-2478 10/1977 by 6/1/2014 2477: 6/27/2014,
2478: 6/30/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2479-2480 10/1977 by 11/1/2014 2479: 3/31/2014,
2480: 3/28/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2481-2482 11/1977 removed from
service 8/3/1979
2481: 7/23/1986,
2482: 0/23/2014

Car 2481 severely damaged in 61st Yard "White House" fire on 8/3/1979; unit removed from service 8/3/1979; authorized by CTA for retirement 12/21/1982, held in storage as of 9/6/1983; scrapped by Pielet Brothers, McCook, IL
Car 2482 converted to training car at Hawthorne Training Center, was sporadically paired with car 2503; re-paired with car 2531 around summer 2002 into a mismatched pair and returned to service; scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap

2483-2484 11/1977 by 6/5/2013 2483: 1/16/2014,
2484: 1/16/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2485-2486 11/1977 by 11/21/2013 2485: 3/26/2014,
2486: 3/27/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2487-2488 11/1977 by 6/5/2013 2487: 12/27/2013,
2488: 12/28/2013
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2489-2490 11/1977 by 9/1/2014 -- Original exterior livery restored, used for ceremonial farewell trip on 1/21/2015; retained by CTA as part of Heritage Fleet
2491-2492 12/1977 by 10/18/2013 10/31/2013 Sold, sources differ as to whom: some say to the Center for National Response in Gallagher, WV; others say to Federal Prison Industries, Inc., d/b/a UNICOR 
2493-2494 11/1979 by 10/18/2013 2493: 1/9/2014,
2494: 1/3/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2495-2496 11/1979 by 5/1/2014 2495: 6/12/2014,
2496: 6/16/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2497-2498 11/1979 during 2/2014 2497: 2/27/2014,
2498: 2/27/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2499-2500 11/20/1979 by 3/1/2014 2499: 5/27/2014,
2500: 5/28/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap (first cars sent to Duke)
Car Date in Service Date to LTH Date Left CTA Notes
2501-2502 1/1978 by 4/1/2014 2501: 5/14/2014,
2502: 5/13/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2503-2504 1/29/1978 2503: 5/2003,
2504: by 5/1/2014
2503: 4/19/2011,
2504: 10/21/14

Car 2503 removed from service in 5/2003 due to a leaky roof and retired, scrapped;
Car 2504 re-paired with car 2469 on 5/24/2006 and returned to service, scrapped by Duke Scrap

2505-2506 2/1978 by 11/1/2014 2505: 3/12/2015,
2506: 3/13/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2507-2508 2/16/1978 by 11/1/2014 ? Fate unclear, presumed scrapped
2509-2510 2/17/1978 during mid-10/2014 2509: 10/22/2014,
2510: 10/21/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2511-2512 2/16/1978 by 11/1/2014 2511: 3/31/2015,
2512: 3/30/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC 
2513-2514 2/28/1978 by 10/18/2013 2513: 1/10/2014,
2514: 1/13/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2515-2516 2/24/1978 by 11/1/2014 2515: 3/24/2015,
2516: 3/25/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2517-2518 3/1978 removed from
service 8/3/1979
n/a
(scrapped at CTA)

Severely damaged in 61st Yard "White House" fire on 8/3/1979; unit removed from service 8/3/1979, retired and scrapped at Lower 63rd Yard on 8/4/1979

2519-2520 3/1978 by 11/1/2014 2519: 3/19/2015,
2520: 3/18/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC
2521-2522 3/22/1978 by 9/5/2013 ? Fate unclear, presumed scrapped
2523-2524 3/24/1978 by 5/1/2014 2523: 7/18/2014,
2524: 7/17/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2525-2526 3/24/1978 by 11/1/2014 2525: 1/2/2015,
2526: 12/31/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2527-2528 4/3/1978 by 3/1/2014 2527: 5/6/2014,
2528: 5/7/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2529-2530 4/12/1978 by 5/1/2014 2529: 7/29/2014,
2530: 7/18/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2531-2532 4/6/1978 2531: during 10/2014,
2532: 8/2000
2531: 10/24/2014
2532: 4/15/2015
Unit damaged in a derailment at Howard Yard on 8/26/2000, stored at Skokie;
Car 2531 repaired and re-paired with car 2482 into a mismatched pair and returned to service, scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap;
Car 2532 retired as a result of damage from 2000 derailment and scrapped
2533-2534 4/25/1978 by 7/1/2014 2533: 8/11/2014,
2534: 8/7/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2535-2536 4/20/1978 by 1/1/2014 2535: 4/9/2014,
2536: 4/10/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2537-2538 5/1/1978 by 11/1/2014 -- Original exterior livery restored, used for ceremonial farewell trip on 1/21/2015; retained by CTA as part of Heritage Fleet
2539-2540 5/1978 by 10/1/2014 2539: 10/16/2014,
2540: 10/17/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2541-2542 5/12/1978 by 11/1/2014 2541: 10/10/15 Car 2541 sent to PMG LS Investment LLC; car 2542 still at Skokie Shops
2543-2544 5/1978 by 11/1/2014 -- Original exterior livery restored, used for ceremonial farewell trip on 1/21/2015; retained by CTA as part of Heritage Fleet
2545-2546 5/1978 by 9/1/2014 2545: 10/13/2014,
2546: 10/10/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2547-2548 6/1978 by 11/1/2014 2547: 1/12/2015,
2548: 1/13/2015
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2549-2550 6/1978 by 6/1/2014 2549: 8/4/2014,
2550: 8/1/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
Car Date in Service Date to LTH Date Left CTA Notes
2551-2552 6/1978 by 5/1/2014 2551: 7/10/2014,
2552: 7/11/2014
Vandalized 2/2014, scrapped by Duke Scrap
2553-2554 6/14/1978 by 6/5/2013 2553: 1/14/2014,
2556: 1/15/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2555-2556 6/1978 by 11/1/2014 2555: 12/18/2014,
2556: 12/17/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2557-2558 6/22/1978 by 6/5/2013 2557: 11/21/2013,
2558: 11/22/2013
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2559-2560 8/2/1978 by 3/1/2014 2559: 5/1/2014,
2560: 5/2/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2561-2562 7/1978 by 11/1/2014 2561: 12/23/2014,
2562: 12/26/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2563-2564 7/1978 by 7/1/2014 2563: 10/30/2014,
2564: 10/29/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2565-2566 7/19/1978 by 5/1/2014 2565: 6/10/2014,
2566: 6/11/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2567-2568 7/1978 by 11/21/2013 2567: 4/8/2014,
2568: 4/7/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2569-2570 8/9/1978 by 6/1/2014 2569: 8/6/2014,
2570: 8/5/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2571-2572 8/1978 by 11/1/2014 2571: 12/22/2014,
2572: 12/19/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2573-2574 8/22/1978 by 6/5/2013 2573: 2/7/2014,
2574: 2/7/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2575-2576 8/1978 by 6/5/2013 2575: 11/20/2013,
2576: 11/19/2013
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2577-2578 8/28/1978 by 2/1/2014 2577: 4/25/2014,
2578: 4/24/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2579-2580 9/1978 2579: by early 2010,
2580: by 6/5/2013
2579: 11/25/2013,
2580: 11/26/2013
Car 2579 retired 6/12/2011; both cars scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2581-2582 9/1978 by 11/1/2014 2581: 4/7/2015,
2582: 4/6/2015
Scrapped by Scrap Metal Services LLC (last cars to leave CTA in 2015 in mass scrapping of 2400-series cars following retirement)
2583-2584 9/1978 mid-10/2014 2583: 10/28/2014,
2584: 10/27/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2585-2586 9/22/1978 by 11/21/2013 2585: 4/4/2014,
2586: 4/4/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2587-2588 10/1978 by 11/1/2014 2587: 12/30/2014,
2588: 12/29/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2589-2590 10/1978 by 11/21/2013 2589: 1/17/2014,
2590: 1/17/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2591-2592 10/16/1978 by 5/1/2014 2591: 7/30/2014,
2592: 7/31/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2593-2594 10/24/1978 by 5/1/2014 2593: 6/25/2014,
2594: 6/24/2014
Scrapped by Duke Scrap
2595-2596 11/9/1978 by 11/21/2013 2595: 1/30/2014,
2596: 1/24/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2597-2598 11/2/1978 by 11/21/2013 2597: 4/2/2014,
2598: 4/1/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap
2599-2600 11/29/1978 during 2/2014 2599: 2/20/2014,
2600: 2/20/2014
Scrapped by Belson Steel Center Scrap

 


Excerpts from this car history are from Chicago's Rapid Transit, Volume II: Rolling Stock 1947-1976 by the Central Electric Railfans Association. Copyright 1976, CERA. All right reserved.

Notes:

1. Buck, Tom. "Debut", CTA Quarterly, 4th quarter 1976, pp. 20-22..